RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students

RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students.

Brief you upon the basic properties of radiofrequency RF electromagnetic radiation and the tech lingo that goes along with it please bear with us it this training block we will do our best to explain the basic elements of RF this blog will teach you the most fundamental aspects of RF and DTMF based projects ideas for final year engineering students.

RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students

where these aspects play fundamental roles we will start with an introduction on RF as such DTMF electronics engineering and we’ll continue with its fundamental properties such as frequency and wavelength will explain the impressive electromagnetic spectrum the power that RF can have the unit decibel and the term bandwidth of applications.

we’ll zoom into a part of the spectrum and show you some typical applications and finally try to impress you with the United States frequency allocation map to give you an idea of a refs ubiquity and importance. what is RF that we spend so much of our time talking about; it and even do business with RF stands for radiofrequency RF is a form of energy in the modification of time-dependent electronic and magnetic fields.

RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Student

in short; its an electromagnetic wave which propagates readily in vacuum or rather space or in solid-state media like metal on a circuit board or through a coaxial cable or it can propagate out of an antenna into space in former time people talked about ether as a medium to carry electromagnetic waves;

however; that notion was pretty much wrong it simply takes space our three-dimensional world to carry these types of waves we said RF is an electromagnetic wave to be a bit more specific only the wave frequencies between 1 megahertz and 3gigahertz are generally called RF. above3 gigahertz up to 30 gigahertz we speak about microwaves higher frequencies between 30 and 300 gigahertz are term millimeter waves as we will see later.

when we discuss the electromagnetic spectrum even higher frequencies manifest themselves as eg visible light or x-rays or as terahertz body scanners at the airport this context will clarify the relation of the terms frequency and wavelength for our electromagnetic RFradiation imagine yourself as an observer on the beach the sea waves pass you by and you track the distance between them that’s the wavelength then you start counting the numbers of waves passing by per minute.

Electromagnetic Radiofrequency based engineering projects

That would give you the frequency of the sea waves per minute with our electromagnetic RF waves it’s exactly the same the number of waves per second is the same as frequency and the distance between wave Maxima is the actual wavelength if one wave passes each second this is known as one Hertz.

RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students; microwave are the terms megahertz and gigahertz this is one million and 1 billion waves per seconde the frequency equals one megahertz and one gigahertz respectively its important to note that the speed of electromagnetic; waves in a vacuum is always the same regardless of its frequency the waves travel with the speed of light if the speed is constant this also means that higher frequency waves must have smaller wavelength to give you an idea your magnetron at home runs at 2.45 gigahertz frequency.

which corresponds to a wavelength of about 12 centimeters reciprocal relation between frequency and wavelength is also the fundamental reason that the techniques that engineers use will vary depending on the portion of the RF -radio frequency spectrum. they are working with high-frequency engineers designed with components that tend to be smaller and lower frequency engineers tend to use physical components that are of larger size.

Number of frequencies

what you see here on this post is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum visualized the table shows the frequency range between 10 to the power of 5 100kilohertz and 10 to the power of 21Hertz .which does not at all imply that it stops at either end it also relates frequency to other parameters like wavelength wave number ie waves per centimeter and electron volt ie the energy of the electromagnetic wave at a given frequency.

you should also note that as the frequency increases more to the right that the wavelength is dropping as we said before you can also see that the higher frequency waves are more energetic by referring to the electron-volt scale please note the examples of real applications which are shown.

here as well on the left-most of the signal transmission kind of applications electronics and on the right the light-based applications or optics can be found along with frequency and wavelength power; is another very important parameter to consider power is the measure of the energy per unit of time that the electromagnetic wave can deliver them more power in the wave the further the wave can be transmitted like for a broadcast signal.

Medical applications used Rf and Dtmf waves and frequencies

The more deeply a wave can penetrate like incertain medical applications more care must usually be given to systems that operate with more power it’s important to understand the power in a relative way the next slide shows how power and parameters, in general, can more easily be thought of in relative terms this slide requires a lot of explanation but will be key to understanding the material.

The more advanced RF courses so it’s important to really understand what’s going on here this slide shows the math tricks and vocabulary used by the engineers if we go back to all of that forgotten math from our younger years we remember that instead of multiplying in the linear domain we can add things in the log domain remember this becomes very useful.

when numbers become very large or likewise very small and when many multiplications are required for instance it becomes much easier to add five two-digit numbers than to multiply five six-digit numbers this practice is common when figuring power gains and losses; through long chains of components so engineers and projects of radio frequency-based engineering projects ideas; will always babble in terms of DB DB M DB Cetc to know how many DB some property we need to know how many zeros were added to the number in the linear math domain then to get the number of DBS we multiply by ten for instance.

Mobile radio frequency rf and DTMF engineering

if a signal gets amplified and becomes a thousand times larger then three zeros were added to its value this three gets multiplied by 10 to get 30 dB conversely if a signal becomes one-millionth as big; it became ten to the negative sixth power as big and minus six times ten is minus60 so in DB. it got affected by minus 60dB some other nice DB number facts to remember are that every doubling of something in the linear domain adds three DB and the DB domain also every time something gets cut in half in the linear domain it drops by three DB or you add minus 3 dB in the DB domain.

likewise, if an amplifier has a gain of20 DB it amplifies the signal power by a factor of 100 right this allows engineers to go through the gains and losses in a system in a very fast way by adding numbers; that is easy to handle I know this sounds clumsy at first but after a few years it’s easy to do math in the DB domain and you become thankful for it you’ll see how this is used in further presentations the bandwidth of a signal can be considered as the width of the spectral chunk that is being covered by the signal.

The system, for instance, an FM radio can receive waves between 88 and 108megahertz the car receiver then has a 20megahertz bandwidth the FM wave per radio station itself has a certain bandwidth as well. which indicates how much information the wave can carry your favorite FM station; transmits a wave that is about 200 kilohertz wide the music only covers a chunk around 20kilohertz wide so the engineers use the remaining frequency space in that 200kilohertz to pack information onto the wave to help the transmission be purer and to let your car navigation system knows.

Cellular FM transmission

where not to go this same principle applies to all the RF and microwave applications and scales and complexity as the system needs become more stringent for example in highly complex third-generation cellular environments system needs far exceed those of music transmission for FM this is why cellular bands operate over broader bandwidths and each transmission from the cell towers is more broadband than for FM transmission the ever-increasing need for information transmission usually adds to the demands placed on the electronic components .

The source of many of the challenges for today’s engineers and in fact fuels a large part of our HP RF business this table shows a few frequency blocks used by most popular applications in general systems that demand larger transmission distance will tend to be granted lower-frequency allocations that’s because using lower frequencies has a physical advantage of having less degradation caused by obstacles you’ll also see 4 SMbands called out these are bands.

Power of RF  and Dtmf projects for final year students

That is free to use with certain maximum-power limitations the industrial scientific and medical is M radio bands were originally reserved internationally for the use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial scientific and medical purposes other than communications you will again recognize your magnetron frequency is an is M band together with your W LAN in general communication equipment must accept any interference generated by is M equipment the bands and applications up to 3.8 gigahertz are covered by-products from RF power.

likewise, the RF small-signal portfolio covers even higher frequencies and applications up to and above 40gigahertz there are of course more bands defined at higher frequencies see earlier electromagnetic wave spectrum these frequencies are also used for several applications but can only be served using other technologies than the ones used currently by RF power and small signal.

What are DTMF and RF technology

In the recent past, wireless controlled vehicles had been extensively utilized in more areas like unmanned rescue missions, military usage for unmanned combat and much of others. But the real disadvantage of these wireless unmanned robots is that they typically make use of RF circuits for maneuver and control.

RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students

Essentially RF circuits suffer from tons of drawbacks like limited frequency range i.e. working range, and limited control. to beat such problems related to RF control, few papers are written, describing methods that make use of the GSM network and therefore the DTMF function of a telephone to regulate the robotic vehicle.

This paper although it uses an equivalent principle technology of the GSM network and therefore the DTMF based mobile it essentially shows the development of a circuit using only 4 bits of wireless digital communication to regulate the motion of the vehicle without the utilization of any microcontroller. This improvement ends up in the considerable reduction of circuit complexity and of manpower for software development because the circuit built using this system doesn’t require any variety of programming.

GSM Radiofrequency

Moreover; practical results obtained showed an appreciable degree of accuracy of the system and friendliness without the utilization of any microcontroller. Keywords – DTMF decoder, GSM network, Motor driver, Microcontroller, Unmanned Surface Vehicles, in theory, RF (Radio Frequency) are often considered the control which deals with the utilization of radio signals to remotely control any device.

A remotely controlled vehicle could also be defined as any mobile device which is controlled by means it doesn’t restrict its motion with an origin external to the device i.e. the likelihood of an existence of a radio control device, a cable between the control and therefore the vehicle or an infrared controller. An RCV is usually controlled by a person’s operator and takes no positive action autonomously. The IR system follows the road of sight approach which involves the strategy of truly pointing the remote at the device being controlled; this makes communication over obstacles and barriers quite impossible.

DTMF signaling

To beat such problems, a signaling scheme utilizing voice frequency tones is used. this is often referred to as Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF), Touch- Tone or just tone dialing. a legitimate DTMF signal is that the sum of two tones, one from a coffee group (697-941Hz) and therefore the other from a high group (1209-1633Hz) with each group containing four individuals tones. DTMF signaling, therefore, plays a crucial role in distributed communication systems like multiuser mobile radio.

During this paper, phones making use of the GSM network interfaced directly with the DTMF decoder and so the motor driver is used to remotely control an unmanned robotic vehicle thus overcoming the space barrier problem and communication over obstacles with very minimal or no interference but is solely network dependant.

The planning of an unmanned vehicle proposed here doesn’t make use of any microcontroller. The transmitter used, maybe a handheld telephone. A literature review is given in section 2 followed by our proposed model in section 3. The hardware design framework is discussed in section 4. The circuit design.


This post is just meant to illustrate how complex and diverse the usage of the electromagnetic spectrum has become nowadays it is a scheme the government the FCC has come up with to allocate the overall spectrum to several licensed unlicensed or government only use per line it gives a part of the overall spectrum in total it ranges between 3 kilohertz and 300 gigahertz RF and DTMF based projects ideas for final year engineering and microwave engineers only have a few small frequency slices available to them depending on the application in other countries this allocation might look very different.

that’s also why there’snot just one single frequency in the world to do all the cellular telephones within fact all countries in the world worked together in the ITU body to align the frequency use across borders the electromagnetic waves would not just stop there this also finishes the presentation on RF basics we hope it is clear and understandable so that you now have an idea what RF and its associated applications are all about the RF and DTMF based Projects Ideas for Final Year Engineering Students.

Advantages of RF and DTMF projects

In this paper, we can control the Robot using Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) technology.

  1. DTMF technology is the most useful technique in the present day.
  2. It is worked on to methods digital signal processing (DSP).
  3. Wireless-control of robots uses RF circuit that has the drawbacks of limited working range and limited control.
  4. This DTMF gives an advantage over the RF; it increases the range of working and also gives good results in case of motion and direction of the robot using a mobile phone through microcontroller.
  5. This type of wireless communication gives the remote handling operation of Robots using DTMF.

Disadvantages of RF and DTMF projects

  1. This RF circuit has many disadvantages but one of the biggest advantages was limited working range, limited frequency range, and limited control.
  2. This has an adverse effect on the performance of the robotic vehicle.
  3. The use of mobile phones in the system is the biggest power to balance the system and overcome the drawback.


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