PNEUMATIC ENGINE.

Air engines are a pneumatic engine that creates useful work by expanding compressed air. A compressed-air vehicle is powered by an air engine, using compressed air, which is stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to drive pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed air vehicles (CAV) use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. They have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from handheld turbines up to several hundred horsepowers. For example, the first mechanically-powered submarine, the 1863 Plongeur, used a compressed air engine.

pneumatic engine

PRINCIPLE WORK OF PNEUMATIC ENGINE

The pneumatic engine works until the pressure in the tank is high enough to fill the cylinder. The value of torque depends on the air mass delivered from the tank through the valve to the cylinder. One of the most important factors influencing the work of the pneumatic engine is valve timing and a value of the air pressure. The pneumatic engine enables the driving of the vehicle with real-zero emission without any combustion process. The vehicle mobility can be increased by adding an additional heat source in order to deliver higher energy to the cylinder. The pneumatic two-stroke engine together with the electric engine will fulfill the future environmental requirements. The experimental set-up of the pneumatic engine has been carried across whole across the world and some vehicles appeared for testing on the road.

APPLICATION

Air engine can be used in many vehicles. Some of its applications to be used as engine for vehicles are:

Mopeds

Jem Stansfield, an English inventor has been able to convert a regular scooter to a compressed air moped. This has been done by equipping the scooter with a compressed air engine and air tank.

Buses

MDI makes MultiCATs vehicles that can be used as buses or trucks. ATP has also already expressed an interest in the compressed-air pollution-free bus.

Locomotives

Compressed air locomotives have been historically used as mining locomotives and in various areas.

Watercraft and aircraft

Currently, no water or air vehicles exist that make use of the air engine. Historically compressed air engines propelled certain torpedoes.

OPERATION OF PNEUMATIC ENGINE 

The work performed by the pneumatic engine depends on the pressure difference between the higher and lower heat source. 

The engine is filled only by the air at high pressure when the piston is at TDC. The pneumatic engine can be simply done by modification of the design of the classic two-stroke engine. The engine does not require the inlet port delivering the air to the crankcase. The crankcase has a vent that causes only small compression of the air. The oiling of the bearings and the cylinder surface is ensured by a small oil pump or by oil drop valve in a closed cycle.

COMPONENTS OF PNEUMATIC

  • PISTON
  • COMBUSTION CHAMBER
  • CONNECTING ROD
  • CRANKSHAFT
  • CAMSHAFT
  • CAM
  • PISTON RINGS
  • GUDGEON PIN
  • INLET
  • EXHAUST MANIFOLD
  • INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE
  • FLYWHEEL

ADVANTAGES 

  • Compressed air to store energy instead of batteries.
  • Pollution created during fuel transportation would be eliminated.
  • Reducing pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the road.
  • There is no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition Systems or silencers.
  • The price of fueling air-powered vehicles will be significantly cheaper than current fuels. 

DISADVANTAGES

  • The temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates.
  • Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take a long time.
  • Tanks get very hot when filled rapidly. It very dangerous if caution is not maintained.
  • The only limited storage capacity of the tanks. So we cannot opt for a long drive.

FUTURE WORK

Future works should be concentrated on the optimization of the air injection parameters in order to obtain a maximal efficiency. This can be performed also by simulations, but the control parameters should be verified on the experimental stand with a real engine. Without the national subsidies or financial support from industry, the research work in scientific institutions will not be possible. 

CONCLUSION

Thus we have developed a PNEUMATIC ENGINE which helps to know how to achieve compressed air vehicles. The application of pneumatics produces smooth operation. By using more techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.

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