we will study that what is a Microcontroller let us start with the topic. This word Microcontroller is composed of two terms micro plus controller micro means very small in size and controller beings a device. which controls the operations of all the devices okay so here we have the word micro for small and controller means controls all the operations so microcontroller based projects final year students we can say that they are the devices.


which are very small in size and they control the operations of the of all the other devices okay now microcontroller or general microcontroller it consists of various components like memories there and this memory can be either RAM or room Ram is the random access memory and Rome is the read-only memory okay so this microcontroller it can have the memory it can have serial input-output ports also it can have the peripheral devices okay.

Chip Microcontroller

and timers and counters all those are there in the microcontroller so we can say that the microcontroller it generally consists of all these components so a microcontroller talking about its components it will have built-in RAMroam input/output ports serial sports timers interrupts and clocks of gauge all will be present in the microcontroller so we can say that microcontroller it is nothing but it’san on-chip computer ok all the devices of the computer they are embedded on a single chip that will be called a microcontroller Electronics projects for students of engineering final year. so another name for a microcontroller is the on-chip computer because it is having all the components.

which are embedded on a single chip now if we compare this microcontroller with the microprocessors so microprocessors then are having the central processing unit that is CPU they will have separate memory separate block for the input/output ports. and a separate block for the interrupts timers and clock circuit so everything is separate on that microprocessors so but in the case of microcontrollers because it is having all the things on one chip so we can say that all the features of the macro processors and projects of final year engineering project student they are of the microprocessors they are contained in the microcontroller so microcontroller itis comprising the features or.

Microprocessor micro-controller

it has microprocessor plus it has the memory section and the input/output section also you so all the components of the microcontroller. they are in the microprocessor plus the internal remainder and the parallel and serial ports so if we combine all these things we will find out the microcontroller so we can say that microcontroller incorporates all features of the microprocessor now as the microcontroller because it is a type of controller it is controlling all the functions so they are very powerful devices you so.

as they are controlling the functions so when via the microcontrollers they are used in any application so they will access the dedicated devices .which are controlling all the functions if we take an example here An example of this is like a microcontroller. they can be used as the engine controllers in the automobiles they are also used in the washing machine in the V CD players and in the microwave ovens for controlling the temperature therein the ovens if we want to control the temperature.

CMOS technology microcontrollers

That is done by the microcontroller so for any specific task if we want to use some device for a specific task we use the microcontrollers so as an engine controller in automobile also like the exposure and focus controllers in the cameras also the microcontrollers are used so in all the applications were controlling is required. a microcontroller can be used now as the microcontrollers have all the devices.

which are embedded on the single chip that is the memory and those input/output both serial ports timer counters all are present on a single chip so for their manufacturing the CMOS technology is used and you do the CMOS technology?

the size of this microcontroller is very small that is by the word micro is there that is microcontrollers they are very small in size because we are using the CMOS technology and all these small devices they are embedded on the same chip so these aren’t chip peripherals the input/output port serial ports .they are selected according to the task performed by the microcontroller in a particular application.

so if you want to use the microcontroller for automobiles will have the different operations that have to be performed for microwave ovens in different operations are to be performed so for depending upon the applications the peripherals are chosen.

Applications of microcontroller

we can say that on-chip peripherals are selected according to the tasks performed in the applications on super refills they are selected depending upon the specifics that specifications of the target application for which application microcontroller is to be used.

now as these microcontrollers are powerful devices digital processors so the degree of control provided by these microcontrollers and the programmability it provides significantly it is going to significantly enhance the effectiveness of the application because if in an application.

if you are using a microcontroller in place of a microprocessor the effectiveness or the efficiency of the application will be increased in the case of microcontroller because they are very powerful devices digital processors and they can better control the operations of the applications .so these microcontrollers we can say that they increase the efficiency of the application.

now different applications of this microcontroller we know that they can be used in washing machines in BCD player in microwave oven in robotics also microcontrollers are used and in industries also microcontrollers are used so these are the various applications of the microcontroller we have the applications in the robotics field also and in the industrial field also okay.

Bit processing microcontroller

now talking about the development of the microcontrollers theater company it designed the first microcontroller which is the 8:05 1micro controller until the design the first microcontroller and this first microcontroller is known as 8:05 one microcontroller this microcontroller was developed in late1970s means in nineteen now it is we can say 1981 it was developed by the Intel and;

this microcontroller-unit is an 8-bit microcontroller 8-bit microcontroller which means we can classify this microcontroller on the basis of the bits processed by them so 8:05 phone is an8-bit microcontroller means it can read write and process 8-bit data so whatever microcontroller.

which is dealing with 8-bit data that will be called an 8-bit microcontroller if it is dealing with 16-bit data then it will be called 16-bit microcontroller and if itis dealing with 32-bit data then it will be called as 32-bit microcontroller so8:05 point was 8-bit microcontroller and all the microcontrollers which belong to this family they are known as MCS 51family ok.

so all these microcontrollers which are of 8-bit they will belong to this family so this was done little bit introduction of what is a microcontroller what which is the first microcontrollers chip design and what are the applications of this microcontrollers soI hope that now this topic is clear to you that what is a microcontroller.

Advantages of microcontroller

  • The low time required for performing the operation.
  • The processor chips are very small and flexibility occurs.
  • Due to their higher integration, the cost and size of the system are reduced.
  • It is easy to interface additional RAM, ROM, and I/O ports.
  • Once microcontrollers are programmed then they cannot be reprogrammed.
  • At the same time, many tasks can be performed so human effects can be saved.
  • Without any digitals parts, it can act as a microcomputer.
  • It is easy to use, troubleshooting and systems maintenance is simple.

Disadvantages of microcontroller

  • The microcontrollers cannot interface high power devices directly.
  • It has a more complex structure as compared to a microprocessor.
  • It only performed a limited number of executions simultaneously.
  • It is generally used in micro equipment.


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