INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE.
An Injection moulding machine, or (Injection moulding machine), also known as an injection press, is a machine for manufacturing plastic products by the injection molding process. It consists of two main parts, an injection unit, and a clamping unit.
Injection molding machine molds can be fastened in either a horizontal or vertical position. The majority of machines are horizontally oriented, but vertical machines are used in some niche applications such as insert molding, allowing the machine to take advantage of gravity. Some vertical machines also do not require the mold to be fastened. There are many ways to fasten the tools to the platens, the most common being manual clamps (both halves are bolted to the platens); however, hydraulic clamps (chocks are used to hold the tool in place) and magnetic clamps are also used. The magnetic and hydraulic clamps are used where fast tool changes are required.
The person designing the mold chooses whether the mold uses a cold runner system or a hot runner system to carry the plastic and fillers from the injection unit to the cavities. A cold runner is a simple channel carved into the mold. The plastic that fills the cold runner cools as the part cools and is then ejected with the part as a sprue. A hot runner system is more complicated, often using cartridge heaters to keep the plastic in the runners hot as the part cools. After the part is ejected, the plastic remaining in a hot runner is injected into the next part.
TYPES OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE
Hydraulic presses have historically been the only option available to molders until Nissei Plastic Industrial Co., LTD introduced the first all-electric injection molding machine in 1983. Hydraulic machines, although not nearly as precise, are the predominant type in most of the world, with the exception of Japan.
Mechanical type machines use the toggle system for building up tonnage on the clamp side of the machine. Tonnage is required on all machines so that the clamp side of the machine does not open (i.e. tool half mounted on the platen) due to the injection pressure. If the tool half opens up it will create flash in the plastic product.
The electric press, also known as Electric Machine Technology (EMT), reduces operation costs by cutting energy consumption and also addresses some of the environmental concerns surrounding the hydraulic press. Electric presses have been shown to be quieter, faster, and have higher accuracy, however, the machines are more expensive.
MAIN COMPONENTS OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE
Consists of main components;-
- Injection Units.
- Screw motor drive.
- Reciprocating screw and barrel.
- Heaters, Thermocouple, Ring plunger.
- Clamping unit.
Consists of three main components;-
- Clamping motor drive.
- Tie bars, the sender is clamped onto the edge of a workbench.
Injection molding process steps;-
- Product Design:
Determining product objectives such as function, aesthetics, assembly, etc., and the requirements for accomplishing the objectives.
- Tool Design:
Like product design, a thoughtful approach to tooling proves valuable. In addition to choosing the appropriate material for tool construction — hardened steel, pre-hardened steel, or aluminum — designing for proper gate location, draft, etc.
Production is the obvious goal of the step-by-step injection molding process. Achieving successful outcomes brings together the product and tool designs with resins that deliver to project needs (such as strength, heat tolerances, sterility, etc.)
WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE
The principle of injection molding is very simple. The plastic material is heated above its melting point, resulting in the conversion of the solid polymer to a molten fluid with a reasonably low viscosity. It is then forced into a closed mold that defines the shape of the article to be produced.
- Lower unit costs.
- Faster cycle times.
- High dimensional tolerances.
- Low levels of flash.
- Little scrap/waste.
- Reduced need for secondary trimming work.
- Higher set up costs
- Waste can be excessive
- More expensive machinery & tooling
- Small runs of parts can be costly
Injection molding is a great technology for finished production on a massive scale. It is also useful for finalized prototypes that are used for consumer and/or product testing. Prior to this late stage in production, however, 3D printing is much more affordable and flexible for products in the early stages of design.
IN CASE KIND OF PROJECTS
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