HYDRAULIC – BRAKE.
A hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing glycol ethers or diethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the controlling mechanism to the braking mechanism. The hydraulic braking system is a type of braking system in which unlike the mechanical braking system, hydraulic fluid is used to transmit the brake pedal or brake lever force from the brake pedal or brake lever to the final drum shoes or disc caliper in order to achieve braking.
In this type of braking system the mechanical force transmitted by the driver on the brake pedal is converted into the hydraulic pressure by a device known as a master cylinder ( see the article on master cylinder) and then this hydraulic pressure is sent to the final drum or disc caliper in order to stop or de-accelerate the vehicle.
WHY NEED HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
Prior to the hydraulic braking system, the type of braking system used was a mechanical braking system, so now the question arises if we already have a mechanical braking system so why hydraulic braking system? Let’s just find out.
1-As the breaking of an automobile vehicle is a very crucial safety part so the responses from the brake pedal to the final braking must be very quick which was a failure of a mechanical type braking system and is very well achieved by the hydraulic braking system which provides quick braking.
2-Frictional wear and tear in case of mechanical braking system was very high due to the involvement of many moving parts, which is very well reduced to the optimum level with the introduction of the hydraulic braking system which has very less moving parts as compared to the mechanical one of an automobile vehicle is a very crucial safety part so the responses from the brake pedal to the final braking must be very quick which was a failure of a mechanical type braking system and is very well achieved by the hydraulic braking system which provides quick braking.
3-The brake force generated by the hydraulic braking system is very high as compared to the mechanical braking which is a very important factor for today’s super and hyper series of vehicles.
TYPE OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE
The hydraulic braking system is classified on 2 bases.
1. On the basis of frictional contact mechanism
(i) Drum brake or internal expanding hydraulic brakes.
(ii) Disc brakes or external contracting hydraulic brakes.
2. On the basis of brake force distribution.
(i) Single-acting hydraulic brakes.
(ii) Dual acting hydraulic brakes.
ON THE BASIS OF BRAKEFORCE DISTRIBUTION
All the components of single acting hydraulic brakes and double-acting hydraulic brakes whether it’s a drum-type single-acting brake or disc type single acting brake are same as mentioned above, the only difference is type of master cylinder used which decides the brake force distribution i.e. In bikes- single wheel braking or double wheel braking, In cars- two-wheel braking or all-wheel braking. So let’s just see that in detail.
1.Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes;-
In a single-acting type of hydraulic brakes, a simple single cylinder type of master cylinder is used which provides limited hydraulic pressure which can only be transferred in a single direction i.e. In bikes- only single wheel, In cars – only single pair(front or rear) of wheels.
2.Double Acting Hydraulic Brakes;-
In a double-acting type of hydraulic brakes, a double or tandem master cylinder is used which provides a higher brake force that can be transferred in double direction i.e. both wheels in bikes and all the wheels in cars.
APPLICATION OF HYDRAULIC BRAKING
- Drum Type Hydraulic Brakes- They are used in some low-speed four-wheelers like Tata Ace.
- Disc Type Hydraulic Brakes- They are widely used in almost all cars like Maruti Suzuki Swift, Hyundai i20, etc.
- Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes- Front brakes of pulsar 180 is of single-acting type.
- Dual Acting Hydraulic Brakes – All the cars mentioned above.
ADVANTAGES HYDRAULIC BRAKE
- They transmit uniform pressure. (Due to hydrostatic pressure being equal in all directions, Pascal law).
- The brake fluid also acts as a lubricant and reduces the frictional losses at high-speed braking.
- They are simpler in construction and lighter in weight.
DISADVANTAGES HYDRAULIC BRAKE
- There is always a possibility of oil/fluid leakage which can render the system inoperative or compromise the friction surfaces.
- Extreme heat may cause the fluid to boil forming gas bubbles that compress and can’t transmit pressure effectively.
Hydraulic braking systems are is used in light vehicles such as cars, bikes, etc. because it requires less effort.
IN CASE KIND OF HYDRAULIC PROJECTS
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