FRICTION WELDING MACHINE.

Friction welding machine is a solid phase welding, in which two similar or dissimilar materials are made to rub each other to produce sufficient heat at the interface and when the impurities at the interface are removed as flash, stopping the relative motion of jobs and applying a forge welding force produces a strong metallic bond between the materials.

Friction welding (FRW) is a solid-state welding process that generates heat through mechanical friction between workpieces in relative motion to one another, with the addition of a lateral force called “upset” to plastically displace and fuse the materials. Because no melting occurs, friction welding is not a fusion welding process in the traditional sense, but more of a forge welding technique. A friction welding machine is used with metals and thermoplastics in a wide variety of aviation and automotive applications.

FRICTION WELDING MACHINE

USE OF FRICTION WELDING MACHINE  

Friction Welding Machine is a process of joining similar metals by the application of heat. Welding can be done with or without the application of pressure. While welding, the edges of metal pieces are either melted or brought to plastic condition. Welding can be done with the addition off filler materials or without it welding is used for making permanent joints. It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft frames, railways wagons, machine frames, structural work, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work, and shipbuilding. At most, all metalworking industries welding are used.

TYPE OF WELD JOINT

Butt Joint

This joint is used to join the ends or edges of two plates or surfaces. The plates or surfaces are located in the same place. The open square butt joint is used for plates up to 5 mm. For more than 5 mm thickness, the edges of plates are made to different forms before welding.

Lap Joint

This is used to join two overlapping plates. The edge of each plate is welded to the surface of the other common types of lap joints curve simple lap joint and double lap joint.

T-Joint

This is used for welding thick sheets (above 3mm thick). The plates welded will be at 90 to each other.

Corner Joint

This used to weld two plates at 90 to each other. I t is used for welding boxes, tanks, and frames. Thin and thick plates can be used.

METHODOLOGY OF FRICTION WELDING MACHINE 

Components

The fabrication of the unit consists of almost all the standard welding processes such as welding, fitting, assembling, etc. The unit necessitates the manufacturing of the following parts.

  • Vertical movable bed
  • Horizontal moving bed
  • Vice
  • Friction tool 
  • Motor
  • Frame stand

WORKING OF FRICTION WELDING MACHINE 

Traditionally, friction welding is carried out by moving one component relative to the other along a common interface, while applying a compressive force across the joint. The friction heating generated at the interface softens both components, and when they become plasticized the interface material is extruded out of the edges of the joint so that clean material from each component is left along with the original interface. The relative motion is then stopped, and a higher final compressive force may be applied before the joint is allowed to cool. The key to friction welding is that no molten material is generated, the weld being formed in the solid-state.

ADVANTAGES 

  • Enables the joining of dissimilar materials normally not compatible with welding by other joining methods.
  • It creates a narrow, heat-affected zone.
  • The consistent and repetitive process of complete metal fusion.
  • Joint preparation is minimal – saw-cut surface used most commonly
  • Greatly increases design flexibility – choose the appropriate material for each area of a blank.
  • Solid-state process – no possibility of porosity or slag inclusions.
  • Full surface weld gives superior strength in critical areas.

DISADVANTAGES

  • This is mostly used only for round bars of the same cross-section.
  • Non-forgeable material cannot be weld.
  • Preparation of workpiece is more critical
  • High setup cost.
  • Joint design is limited.

APPLICATION

  • For welding tubes and shafts.
  • It is mostly used in aerospace, automobile, marine, and oil industries.
  • Gears, axle tube, valves, driveline, etc. components are friction welded.
  • It is used to replace forging or casting assembly.
  • Hydraulic piston rod, truck rollers bushes, etc. are joined by friction welding.
  • Used in electrical industries for welding copper and aluminum equipment.
  • Used in pump for welding pump shaft (stainless steel to carbon steels).
  • Gear levers, drill bits, connecting rod, etc. are welded by friction welding.

CONCLUSION

The friction welding process was very efficient in the welding of dissimilar materials like aluminum. It is expected by the results of tension mechanical tests that presented mechanical properties that are not possible to achieve by means of fusion welding processes.

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