CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM.
A conveyor belt system is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor). A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys (sometimes referred to as drums), with an endless loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.
STRUCTURE OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM
The belt consists of one or more layers of material. It is common for belts to have three layers: a top cover, a carcass, and a bottom cover. The purpose of the carcass is to provide linear strength and shape. The carcass is often a woven or metal fabric having a warp & weft. The warp refers to longitudinal cords whose characteristics of resistance and elasticity define the running properties of the belt. The weft represents the whole set of transversal cables allowing the belt specific resistance against cuts, tears, and impacts and at the same time high flexibility. The most common carcass materials are steel, polyester, nylon, cotton, and aramid (class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers, with Twaron or Kevlar as brand names). The covers are usually various rubber or plastic compounds specified by the use of the belt.
BASIC TYPE OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM
1. Roller Bed Conveyor Belts
The surface of this type of conveyor belt is made up of rollers that are selected to match production requirements, such as the weight or required speed of the products that will move along the belt. Shorter conveyor belts that fall under this type can be made up of just two rollers. However, as the distance between the two ends of the belt increases, more will be needed for the belt to function.
2. Flat Belt Conveyors
The flat belt conveyor belt is one of the most prevalent conveyor systems in use today. Flat belts are useful for internal conveyance, i.e. transporting items within a facility.
3. Modular Belt Conveyors
While flat belt conveyors use a single, continuous loop of material, modular conveyor belt systems use a single loop made of countless interlocked pieces, usually made of hard plastic.
4. Curved Belt Conveyors
This type of belt conveyor uses a curved frame to carry items around corners, make tight transfers, or maximize available floor space. These belts’ curves can go up to 180°. Truly curved conveyors that do not have any straight runs can only use flat belts, as modular plastic belts require straight runs before and after curves.
5. Incline/Decline Belt Conveyors
Incline belt conveyors are handy for carrying products up or down. These systems can cross over with cleated belt conveyors to transport products to different elevations while keeping them from falling off the line.
6. Sanitary and Washdown Conveyors
If you’ve ever observed how donuts are manufactured in their shops, you might have seen this type of conveyor belt in action. Donut shops and other applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries often involve harsh washing and sterilization, in compliance with safety guidelines.
- It is one of the cheapest ways to move material long distances.
- There is virtually no degradation of your product caused by conveying.
- The conveyor can have changes in elevation.
- The material can be visible on the belt while being conveyed.
- Belts can be loaded virtually any place along the belt.
- The belt can have “trippers” to unload the belt in almost any place.
- Belt conveyors can have metal separators designed in.
- Belts can have sidewalls added to stop product spillage.
- The normal design of a belt conveyor is opened. If your product needs to be contained, covers and or drip pans can become expensive and cumbersome.
- If the material is sticky, belt cleaning can be difficult and generally not very successful.
- There is almost always material carry over from the belt discharge and this becomes a housekeeping problem.
- Odder control is virtually impossible.
Wide range applications of belt conveyors and the work environment are generally more difficult, to keep equipment running in good working condition, extend equipment life, improve the quality of operation, reduce operating costs has been the goal of engineering and technical personnel. Analyze and resolve the impact normal operation of the main problems, to ensure the good functioning of the device, it is an important work of equipment maintenance.
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